Prof. Dr. Ali EKİZ

Prof. Dr. Ali EKİZ

Gynecology and Perinatology (Risky Pregnancy) Specialist

With over 15 years of professional experience, dozens of national and international research articles, and most importantly, his smiling face, Gynecology and Perinatology Specialist Prof. Dr. Ali EKİZ is with you.

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Ovarian Cyst

What is an Ovarian Cyst? How to Treat?

Ovarian cyst is the name given to the fluid-filled sacs formed in the ovaries of the female reproductive system, that is, on the ovary. These cysts are associated with the normal ovulation process, which usually occurs during the hormone cycle. In this article, we would compile what you need to know about ovarian cysts.

What are the Types of Ovarian Cysts?

Ovarian cysts can be of different types and are harmless in most cases. We can list the most common types of ovarian cysts as follows:

• Functional Cysts: This is the name given to cysts that form during or after ovulation. These are cysts that usually disappear on their own and are usually harmless.

• Follicular Cyst: If the follicle growing in the ovary does not crack even though it matures, that is, if the egg cannot be released, a follicular cyst occurs. It is harmless and goes away after a few cycles.

• Corpus Luteum Cyst: After ovulation, the tissue remaining in the follicle site synthesizes a significant amount of hormones that will increase blood flow. This structure is called corpus luteum. Since the corpus luteum is exposed to a significant increase in blood flow in a short time, bleeding is a common condition. This may cause cyst formation. It is benign and gets better on its own. However, it can sometimes cause serious bleeding and require emergency surgery.

• Endometrioma: This is the name given to cysts that form in the ovaries associated with a condition called endometriosis. Endometriosis is the condition in which the inner layer of the uterus, that is, the endometrium, grows outside the uterus. The cyst formation is called endometrioma or chocolate cyst.

• Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS): PCOS is known as a condition in which many small cysts form in the ovaries. These cysts are often associated with hormonal imbalances and can affect ovulation. However, PCOS are not cysts to be operated on.

What are the symptoms of ovarian cyst?

Ovarian cysts usually do not cause symptoms and are often detected incidentally during an ultrasound examination. However, sometimes large or uncomfortable cysts may cause symptoms. We can list some of these symptoms as follows:

• Pelvic pain,

• Bloating,

• Menstrual irregularities,

• Frequent urination,

• Pain during sexual intercourse.

Most ovarian cysts go away on their own and do not require treatment. However, in case of a large, painful or suspicious cyst, the doctor may perform further tests. Treatment may also be recommended depending on the situation. Treatment options include; This may include medication, surgical intervention, or monitoring of the cyst. In any case, it is important to consult a doctor and follow his recommendations.

What is the Ovarian Cyst Risk Group?

Ovarian cysts can occur in women of all ages, although some risk factors may increase the likelihood of cyst formation. We can list the important risk groups as follows:

• Young Age: Ovarian cysts are generally more common in women of reproductive age. Functional cysts associated with the ovulation process usually occur in young women.

• Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at risk of developing cysts in the ovaries due to hormonal imbalances. PCOS is a condition characterized by menstrual irregularities, hormonal changes and ovulation problems.

• Previous History of Cysts: Women who have had an ovarian cyst before may be at risk of developing cysts in the future.

• Endometriosis: Women with endometriosis are at risk of developing ovarian cysts called endometriomas.

• Family History: Women with a family history of ovarian cysts may be at risk of developing this condition.

• Hormonal Balance Disorders: Situations in which the balance on the normal hormone production of the ovaries and the regular ovulation process is disrupted may increase the risk of ovarian cyst formation.

• Smoking: Smoking may increase the risk of ovarian cyst formation.

• Medication Use: Some medications, especially some hormonal medications used for infertility treatment, may increase the risk of ovarian cyst formation.

Although these risk factors increase the likelihood of developing an ovarian cyst, any woman can develop an ovarian cyst. Women with risk factors should be monitored with regular check-ups and additional screening tests if necessary. Any woman with suspected or symptoms of an ovarian cyst should contact their doctor and seek their advice for appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

How is Ovarian Cyst Treated?

Ovarian cyst treatment; It may vary depending on the type of cyst, its size, symptoms, and the woman’s reproductive goals. We can list the most frequently preferred ovarian cyst treatments as follows:

• Follow-up: Small, asymptomatic and harmless cysts are usually followed up. In this case, the doctor will monitor the growth or change of the cyst by performing regular check-ups.

• Drug Treatment: In some cases, hormonal medications can be used to control the growth of the cyst or relieve symptoms. Birth control pills containing estrogen and progesterone can be used to shrink cysts and prevent new cysts from forming.

• Laparoscopic Surgery: Surgical intervention may be required in case of large, symptomatic cysts or possible cancerous cysts. Laparoscopic surgery allows the removal of the cyst with an instrument inserted through small incisions. Since this method is a minimally invasive surgery, the recovery time is shorter.

• Laparotomy: In rare cases, open surgery called laparotomy with a larger incision may be required to remove large cysts or possible cancerous cysts. This is a more invasive method and may require a longer recovery period.

An important point is that ovarian cyst treatment may be different for each woman. Treatment options are determined depending on the individual situation and the characteristics of the cyst.

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