Prof. Dr. Ali EKİZ

Prof. Dr. Ali EKİZ

Gynecology and Perinatology (Risky Pregnancy) Specialist

With over 15 years of professional experience, dozens of national and international research articles, and most importantly, his smiling face, Gynecology and Perinatology Specialist Prof. Dr. Ali EKİZ is with you.

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Gynecologic Cancer

What is Gynecological Cancer?

Department of Gynecology is popularly known as the “Department of Gynecology”. Gynecology; It is a department that deals with genital diseases that occur in women during the period from adolescence to menopause. The Gynecological Oncology Department deals with gynecological cancers. So, what are gynecological cancers? In this article, we have compiled what you need to know about gynecological cancer types.

What are Gynecological Cancers?

Types of gynecological cancer; The outer part of the genital area is known as the vulva, vagina, uterus (endometrium), uterine wall, cervix (cervix), ovary, tuba uterina (tube, fallopian types) and abdominal membrane (peritoneum).

These cancers, defined as types of cancer seen in the female body, are basically related to the female reproductive organs. The most common types of gynecological cancer can be listed as follows:

• Uterus

• Ovary

• Cervix

What are the Gynecological Cancer Risks?

There are some conditions that pose a risk of gynecological cancer. We can list these situations as follows:

• Family history of cancer

• Never having given birth

• Having sexually transmitted diseases

• Obesity

• Not having a regular gynecological examination

• To smoke

• Advanced age

• Using medication or drugs that suppress the immune system

What are the symptoms of gynecological cancers?

In order to understand the symptoms of gynecological cancer, it is necessary to know the body well. Many women consider problems such as vaginal bleeding, pain or pressure in the pelvic area, and discharge normal. However, such situations should be taken seriously and a doctor should be consulted. We can list the symptoms of gynecological cancer as follows:

• Vaginal Bleeding: Endometrium is among the types of gynecological cancer. Endometrium, the most common type of gynecological cancer, begins in the uterus. The biggest symptom of endometrial cancer is irregular and frequent bleeding. If there is any vaginal bleeding, especially in the post-menopausal period, it is necessary to be examined by a gynecologist.

• Weight Loss: Sudden weight loss despite no change in eating habits is among the biggest symptoms of cancer. In addition, loss of appetite, abdominal swelling, indigestion and abdominal pain may also be symptoms of ovarian cancer.

• Bleeding During Sexual Intercourse: In case of bleeding during or after sexual intercourse, a gynecological examination should be performed and the reproductive organs should be evaluated.

• Vaginal Discharge: Dark or foul-smelling discharge is often a sign of infection. However, cervical, endometrial or vaginal cancers may also present with the same symptoms. When such problems persist for a long time, it is useful to see a doctor. Intermittent, intense, transparent discharge, especially after menopause, definitely requires evaluation.

• Pain in the Pelvis or Abdominal Area: Pain is among the early symptoms of cancer types. For example, ovarian cancer may manifest itself especially with back and abdominal pain. Cervical cancer may cause pain or pressure in the pelvic area.

• Change in the Vulva: If there are abnormal changes in the vulva, such as wounds, itching, redness, burning or pain, especially if they continue for a long time, it is necessary to see a doctor.

How is Gynecological Cancer Diagnosed?

Gynecological cancer types can be diagnosed in different ways. We can list gynecological cancer diagnosis methods as follows:

• Every woman should learn about vulvar examination. This situation is of great importance for early diagnosis. Additionally, pap smear and pelvic examination may be performed. Biopsy and colposcopy may also be performed for diagnosis.

• For the diagnosis of uterine cancer; Various methods such as ultrasound, pathological evaluation of the tissue taken by curettage, hysteroscopy, CT and MRI can be used.

• For early diagnosis of ovarian cancer, gynecological check-ups must be performed regularly. In addition, ovarian cancer can be diagnosed with pelvic examination, CT, MRI, ultrasonography, blood tests and pathological examinations.

What are the Ways to Prevent Gynecological Cancer?

There are some factors that can be taken into consideration to protect against gynecological cancers. We can list these elements as follows:

• HPV vaccine: HPV, which stands for Human Papilloma Virus, is a virus that can cause cervical cancer. The HPV vaccine may help prevent infections caused by HPV and reduce the risk of cervical cancer. In other words, it is a cancer vaccine.

• Regular screenings: Pap smear test and HPV screenings for cervical cancer should be performed regularly. Early diagnosis increases the chance of treatment.

• Healthy lifestyle: Healthy eating, regular exercise, avoiding smoking and alcohol consumption can help reduce the risk of gynecological cancer.

• Birth control methods: Using birth control methods to control the number of pregnancies can reduce the risk of uterine cancer. Birth control pills containing estrogen reduce the risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer.

• Giving birth: Giving birth reduces the risk of both ovarian and endometrial cancer. It can also be said that breastfeeding has the same effect.

• Hygiene: Living in accordance with cleanliness and hygiene rules can reduce the risk of gynecological cancer by preventing vaginal infections, especially sexually transmitted diseases.

• Knowing the risk factors: If you have a family history of gynecological cancer or other risk factors (for example, genetic predisposition), it is important to have regular doctor checks and screenings. Familial cancer susceptibility genes (BRCA) should be investigated in cases where breast, endometrium and colon cancers are detected in two or more relatives in the family.

These recommendations do not guarantee complete prevention of gynecological cancers. However, it may help reduce the risk. Therefore, in case of any concerns regarding gynecological health, it is necessary to consult a gynecologist.


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